Parasites-helminths and lamblia

Parasitosis is a separate group of diseases caused by protozoa or helminths (worms). According to statistics, helminthiasis and giardiasis occur in 78-80% of children of preschool and school age. Parasitic worms and arthropods poison the body with the products of their vital activity, in connection with which damage to vital systems and organs is observed.

Giardia and worms: differences and similarities

infestation of a child with parasites

Many people mistakenly believe that Giardia is a type of helminth that parasitizes the gastrointestinal tract. Both those and other microorganisms are parasites and enter the body in the same way. However, worms and giardia are representatives of different classes, which differ in the structure and degree of damage to the health of the child:

  • Giardia (giardia) are flagellated protozoa that parasitize the mucous membrane of the small intestine. Single-celled microorganisms can exist in two forms:
    1. pore - the transformation of giardia into a cyst when unfavorable conditions occur. In this form, it maintains its activity in the external environment and, in case of penetration into a living organism, begins to develop;
    2. vegetative - active development of giardia inside the intestine, from which it receives all the nutrients necessary for growth and reproduction.
  • Helminths (worms) are parasitic worms that can infect almost any type of tissue. There are more than 400 types of worms, but they all belong to one of the following types:
    1. tapeworms - echinococcus, broad litinette, pork tapeworm;
    2. flukes - flukes;
    3. nematodes - toxocara, pinworms, whipworms.

Infection of children with parasites occurs when drinking water or food contaminated with cysts and eggs. The carriers of helminth eggs and lamblia cysts are cats and dogs. The development of parasitosis is facilitated by mosquitoes, flies and other insects carrying roundworm eggs, echinococcus, etc. On the trunk.

The clinical picture with giardiasis (giardiasis)

Parasitic infection is most commonly diagnosed in children between the ages of 1 and 4. In about 30% of cases, parasitosis is asymptomatic and is detected during the diagnosis of another disease during laboratory tests. Typical symptoms of giardiasis in children include:

  • decreased appetite;
  • flatulence;
  • dizziness;
  • poor sleep;
  • weight loss;
  • violation of feces;
  • irritability;
  • pain in the navel;
  • epigastric discomfort;
  • liver enlargement;
  • dyskinesia of the biliary tract;
  • allergic dermatitis.

In young children, giardiasis is more severe than in adults. Intoxication of the body with the waste products of giardia leads to a change in complexion, the appearance of acne and dark circles under the eyes. A blood test reveals an increased concentration of eosinophils in the plasma. In feces, parasites are not always detected, which is associated with the peculiarities of their development cycle.

Clinical picture with helminthiasis

control parasite infestation based on symptoms

Symptoms of helminthiasis appear 2-4 weeks after the penetration of parasites into the child's body. In about 1/3 of patients, the signs of parasitosis are weakly expressed, however, the toxic effect of their waste products does not stop. The main manifestations of helminthiasis in children include:

  • feverish condition;
  • exudative rash;
  • swelling of the face;
  • loose stools;
  • lymphadenopathy;
  • flatulence;
  • stomach cramps;
  • nervousness;
  • insomnia;
  • chronic fatigue.

Note: the development of complications accompanying helminthiasis is promoted by immunodeficiencies, vitamin deficiencies and mineral deficiencies.

With massive invasions, vital organs are damaged, as evidenced by the development of myocarditis, pleuropneumonia, meningoencephalitis, etc. The degree of eosinophilia in helminthiasis depends on the patient's immune status and the intensity of the infection.

Treatment of giardiasis

Therapy of giardiasis is not started with the use of antiparasitic drugs, as this can lead to the development of severe toxic-allergic complications. In this regard, the treatment is carried out in three phases:

  1. Compliance with the dietary program for 14 days helps to eliminate toxicosis. To improve the enzymatic activity of the intestine and increase general immunity, it is necessary to include cereals, cereals, nuts and vegetable oil in the diet. To reduce the concentration of toxins in the blood, enterosorbents, choleretics and antihistamines are prescribed for children;
  2. Intensive antiparasitic therapy contributes to the elimination of lamblia and active cysts. For the destruction of protozoa are usually used: "Nifuratel", "Metronidazole", "Ornidazole";
  3. To improve intestinal motility, it is recommended to include fermented milk products, cereals and baked apples in the menu. You can strengthen your baby's immune system with the help of prebiotics, multivitamins and herbal adaptogens.

In the acute course of giardiasis, a one-stage treatment regimen with antiparasitic drugs is prescribed. The most effective are: "Albendazole", "Tinidazole", "Mepacrine", "Furazolidone", etc.

Treatment of helminthiasis

treatment of helminthiasis with drugs

The principles of deworming are determined by the type of parasite that caused the development of the disease. The main goal of therapeutic and prophylactic measures is to reduce the number of helminthic invasions in the intestine and strengthen nonspecific immunity. The following groups of medicines can be used to destroy worms:

  • anti-nematodale - "mebendazole", "thiamazole";
  • anticestoid - "praziquantel", "niclosamide";
  • protivotrematodoznye.

Many of the above drugs can cause side effects such as anemia and intestinal bleeding. To prevent deterioration of health during therapy, it is recommended to use "Filgrastim", "Dioxomethyltetrahydropyrimidine", "Ursodeoxycholic acid", "Colespitol".


Giardia and helminths are representatives of different classes of parasitic microorganisms that enter the human body in the same way. The clinical manifestations of helminthiasis and giardiasis are very diverse, which is associated with different principles of their development and the localization of invasions. Disease anti-parasite therapy includes various drugs aimed at destroying certain types of pathogens.